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Chapter 1

J. McIver Weatherford, Genghis Khan and the Making of the Modern World (New York: Crown, 2004), Kindle ed.
2 Ibid.
3 Ibid.
4 Ibid.
5 Charlton M. Lewis and W. Scott Morton, China: Its History and Culture, 4th ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2004), 121.
6 Daron Acemoglu and James A. Robinson, Why Nations Fail: The Origins of Power, Prosperity, and Poverty (New York: Crown, 2012), Kindle ed.
7 Howard J. Wiarda, The Soul of Latin America: The Cultural and Political Tradition (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2001), 77–82; Acemoglu and Robinson, Why Nations Fail.
8 Acemoglu, Why Nations Fail: The Origins of Power, Prosperity, and Poverty.
9 John Adams and Charles Francis Adams, “IX: 229,” in The Works of John Adams, Second President of the United States: With a Life of the Author, Notes and Illustrations (Boston: Little, Brown, 1850), 229.
10 George Washington, “Washington’s Farewell Address, 1796,” Yale Law School, Lillian Goldman Law Library,
11 “The Origins of the Financial Crisis,” The Economist, Crash Course, September 7, 2013.
12 George Washington, “Washington’s Farewell Address, 1796,” Yale Law School, Lillian Goldman Law Library,
13 David Armitage, The Declaration of Independence: A Global History (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2007), 93-100.
14 Zoltan J. Acs, David B. Audretsch, and Robert J. Strom, Entrepreneurship, Growth, and Public Policy (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2013), 325.
15 U.S. State Department, Office of the Historian, “Decolonization of Asia and Africa, 1945–1960,” Milestones,
16 “Light the Lamp: Inspiration from Tagore and Han Yong-Un: TheAsian.” Next News Network.
17 Fred Dews, “Pivot, Rebalance, or Reinvigorate? Words Matter in U.S. Strategy toward Asia,” Brookings Institution, Brookings Now, April 21, 2014,
18 Goohoon Kwon, “A United Korea? Reassessing North Korea Risks (Part I),” Goldman Sachs Global Economics, Commodities and Strategy Research, Global Economics Paper No. 188, September 26, 2009,
19 Global Peace Foundation, “Korea United Coalition Calls for Opening the ‘Era of Unification,’” April 9, 2014,‘era-unification’.


Chapter 2

20 Alan Axelrod, The Real History of the Cold War: A New Look at the Past (New York: Sterling, 2009), 254.
21 Brandon Palmer, “Imperial Japan’s Preparations to Conscript Koreans as Soldiers, 1942–1945.” Korean Studies 31 (2007): 63-78.
22 United Nations Economic Social Council, Commission on Human Rights, Report on the mission to the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, the Republic of Korea and Japan on the issue of military sexual slavery in wartime, E/CN.4/1996/53/Add.1, January 4, 1996
Note: the sources and facts in the above cited report have been disputed and so we include here a link to testimonies posted on the Asian Women’s Fund’s Digital Museum: “The Comfort Women Issue and the Asian Women’s Fund”
“Testimonies of the Victims,” Digital Museum: The Comfort Women Issue and the Asian Women’s Fund, 2007,
23 James A. Foley, Korea’s Divided Families: Fifty Years of Separation (New York: Routledge Curzon, 2003). Kindle edition.
24 Un Chin Lee, “Stories of Divided Families in USA,” Divided Families in USA,
25 Foley, Korea’s Divided Families: Fifty Years of Separation.
26 Jee Abbey Lee, “Inter-Korean Family Reunions Take Emotional Toll,” Voice of America, April 2, 2014,
27 Foley, Korea’s Divided Families: Fifty Years of Separation
28 Susanne Koelbl, “Escaping North Korea: The Long Road to Freedom,” Spiegel Online International, October 17, 2013,
29 Georgie Anne Geyer, “Commentary: Gorbachev and the Rev. Moon,” Daily Record, April 18, 1993, 3.
30 Armin Rosen, “Sun Myung Moon’s Groundbreaking Campaign to Open North Korea,” The Atlantic, September 6, 2012,
31 Song-gyu Bae, “Tong-il-imiraeda” [Reunification is the future: a survey of public opinion], Chosun Ilbo, January 1, 2014,,
32 Ah-young Chung, “Korea’s GDP Ranks 14th for Five Consecutive Years,” Korea Times, July 13, 2014, last modified July 14, 2014,
33 Seung-woo Kang, “NK on High Alert over Defectors,” Korea Times, December 26, 2013,
34 United Nations, “Report of the Commission of Inquiry on Human Rights in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea,” A/HRC/25/63, February 7, 2014,
35 “Statement by Mr. Michael Kirby Chair of the Commission of Inquiry on Human Rights in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea,” Democratic People’s Republic of Korea to the 25th Session of the Human Rights Council, Geneva, March 17, 2014,
36 United Nations, “Report of the Commission of Inquiry on Human Rights in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea,” A/HRC/25/63, February 7, 2014.
37 Hee-jin Kim, “‘Defector-Turned-Lawmaker,’ a First in the South.” Korea JoongAng Daily, April 23, 2012,
38 Tim Large, “Special Report: Crisis Grips North Korean Rice Bowl,” Reuters, October 6, 2011,
39 Jordan Weissmann, “How Kim Jong-il Starved North Korea,” The Atlantic, December 20, 2011,
40 ACAPS, “Global Overview,” April 22, 2013,
41 UNICEF, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2009, December 2010,
42 Jinhye Jo, “Testimony of Ms. Jinhye Jo,” Congressional-Executive Commission on China, U.S. Congress, March 5, 2012, 1–2, pdf.
43 Shako Liu, “North Korean Refugees: Freedom Is Bitter Sweet,” Shako Liu: Living and Breathing News, September 30, 2012,
44 Ibid.
45 Madison Park, “Orphaned and Homeless: Surviving the Streets of North Korea,”, May 14, 2013,
46 Joseph Kim, “The Family I Lost in North Korea. And the Family I Gained,” Ted Conference, June 2013,
47 Alastair Gale, “A Defector’s Tale: Lee Hyeon-seo,” Wall Street Journal, Korea Real Time RSS, June 11, 2011,
48 Foley, Korea’s Divided Families: Fifty Years of Separation.
49 Ibid.
50 Harris Mylonas, The Politics of Diaspora Management in the Republic of Korea, Asan Institute for Policy Studies, Issue Brief No. 81, November 20, 2013,
51 “Jae-oe Dong-po Hyeon-hwang”[Current status of South Koreans abroad], Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade, 2013,
52 No-Yeol Kim, Minju Hanin Chulban Daejol Esang [Korean Americans Top Graduation Rates], The Korea Times, May 20, 2011.
53 “The Rise of Asian-Americans,” Pew Research Center: Social and Demographic Trends, June 19, 2012,
54 Richard Perez-Pena, “As Koreans Pour In, A Town is Remade,” New York Times, December 15, 2010,
55 Mike Kim, Escaping North Korea: Defiance and Hope in the World’s Most Repressive Country, (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers Inc., 2008)
56 Young-jin Kim, “Glimmer of Hope: ‘Divided Families,’ a Film about War-Separated Koreans, Nears Completion,” Korea Times, May 20, 2013,
57 Sung-yoon Lee, Engaging North Korea: The Clouded Legacy of South Korea’s Sunshine Policy, American Enterprise Institute, April 19, 2010,
58 Han Sung-Joo, “Careful Aid for N. Korea Is the Best Policy,” The Chosun Ilbo August 30, 2011,
59 “S Koreans charged over summit cash,” BBC, June 25, 2003,
60 Timothy Savage, “Benign Neglect Again? U.S. Policy toward North Korea after Kim Dae-jung,” International Journal of Korean Unification Studies 11, no. 2 (2002): 63–85,
61 Si-soo Park, “Number of Oil Cleanup Volunteers Top 1 Mil,” Korea Times, January 10, 2008,;
Chosun Ilbo, “Taean Environment Recovers Pre-Oil Spill Health,” July 31, 2013,


Chapter 3

62 Tania Branigan, “Korean Unification: Dreams of Unity Fade into Past for Young South Koreans,” The Guardian, May 27, 2013,
63 Associated Press, “North Korea Conducting More Weapons Tests Now Than in Recent Past,” Japan Times, July 15, 2014,
64 Max Fisher, “Even by North Korean Standards, This Announcement of Jang Song Thaek’s Execution Is Intense,” Washington Post, December 12, 2013,
65 “North Korean Purge of Leader’s Uncle Sparks Stability Fears,” BBC News, December 13, 2013,
66 Ibid.; Nicholas Eberstadt, “The Death of Kim Jong-il and North Korea’s Broken Dynasty,” Foreign Affairs, December 20, 2011,
67 David Hulme, “North Korea’s Kim Dynasty,”, Summer 2007,
68 Bradley K. Martin, Under the Loving Care of the Fatherly Leader: North Korea and the Kim Dynasty (New York: Thomas Dunne, 2004), 96-104.
69 Andrei Lankov, “North Korea’s Choice: Collapse or Reform,” Foreign Affairs, December 19, 2011,
70 Ibid.
71 Marcus Noland, “Six Markets to Watch: South Korea.” Foreign Affairs, January 1, 2014,
72 Ken E. Gause, North Korean Civil-Military Trends: Military-First Politics to a Point (Carlisle Barracks, PA: Strategic Studies Institute, US Army War College, 2006).
73 Dae-sook Suh, “Military-First Politics of Kim Jong-il,” Asian Perspective 26, no. 3 (2002): 145–67,
74 Lankov, “North Korea’s Choice.”
75 Foster Klug, “Prominent Execution Explodes Myth of Unchallenged Kim Dynasty in North Korea,” Business Insider, December 16, 2013,; Tom Watkins and Elise Labott, “North Korea Says Leader’s Uncle Was Executed,”, December 13, 2013,
76 Chunshan Mu, “China’s Official Response to Jang Song-thaek’s Execution: An Analysis,” The Diplomat, December 21, 2013,; Christopher Bodeen, “North Korea: Execution Breaks Key Link with China,” Christian Science Monitor, December 14, 2013,; Nathan Beauchamp-Mustafaga, “China-North Korea Relations: Jang Song-thaek’s Purge vs. the Status Quo,” China Analysis, no. 47, February 1, 2014.
77 Rose Kim, “Execution Sign of a Regime on the Edge,” Sydney Morning Herald, December 13, 2013,
78 Associated Press, “Dennis Rodman Talks N. Korea Trip,”, March 3, 2013,
79 Peter Foster, “North Korea Faces Famine: ‘Tell the World We Are Starving,’” The Telegraph, July 16, 2011,; Andrew Natsios, “The Politics of Famine in North Korea,” United States Institute of Peace, August 2, 1999,
80 Jean H. Lee, “North Korea Bans Foreign Currencies in Market Clampdown,” Los Angeles Daily News, December 30, 2009,; Bill Powell, “Economic ‘Reform’ in North Korea: Nuking the Won,” Time, December 3, 2009,,8599,1945251,00.html.
81 Joon Ho Kim, “North Koreans Turn to Dollar, Yuan,” Radio Free Asia (trans. Goeun Yu; ed. Josphua Lipes), March 27, 2013,
82 “Secret Report Throws Light on N. Korean Purges,” Chosun Ilbo, November 27, 2012,; Associated Press, “North Korea Executes Finance Official Pak Nam Gi over Botched Currency Reform: Report,” NY Daily News, March 18, 2010,
83 Heesun Wee, “Inside North Korea’s Not So Isolated Economy.”, August 1, 2013,
84 John Ruwitch and Ju-min Park, “Insight: North Korean Economy Surrenders to Foreign Currency Invasion,” Reuters, June 2, 2013,; Kim, “North Koreans Turn to Dollar, Yuan.”
85 Alex Brown, “Kim Jong-un Just Doubled His Country’s Cell Phone Use—But Don’t Expect a ‘Korean Spring,’” National Journal, March 7, 2014,
86 Ibid.; “North Korea: Two Million Have Mobile Phones,” BBC News, August 5, 2013,
87 Martyn Williams, “North Koreans Gaining More Access to Foreign Media, Says Report,” North Korea Tech, May 13, 2012,
88 Edward P. Reed, “Unlikely Partners: Humanitarian Aid Agencies and North Korea,” in A New International Engagement Framework for North Korea? Korea Economic Institute,
89 OECD (2012), Looking to 2060: A Global Vision of Long-Term Growth, No. 15, November 2012,
90 Michael Pettis, “How China Can Avoid the Japan Trap,” Wall Street Journal, November 29, 2010,
91 Thomas Klassen, “South Korea: Ageing Tiger,” Global Brief, January 12, 2010,; Carlo Davis, “South Korea’s Elderly Population Booming, One Third of Country to Be over 65 by 2040,” Huffington Post, June 20, 2013,
92 “Think Tank Warns of S. Korea’s Debt Situation,” Yonhap News, October 25, 2011,
93 Hao Li, “Column: China Is a Giant Money-Sucking Black Hole,” International Business Times, January 13, 2011,
94 “2014 North Korea Military Strength,”, March 27, 2014,
95 Kyle Mizokami, “The North Korean Army Is Rusting Away. So It’s Getting Creative,” The Week, July 1, 2014,
96 David Hambling, “Decisive Weapons of the Next Korean War,” Popular Mechanics, November 24, 2010,
97 Homer T. Hodge, “North Korea’s Military Strategy,” Parameters (Spring 2003): 68–81,
98 Nick Hansen, “North Korea’s New Long-Range Missile: Fact or Fiction?” 38 North: Informed Analysis of North Korea RSS, U.S.-Korea Institute at SAIS, May 4, 2012,
99 David Albright, “North Korean Miniaturization,” 38 North: Informed Analysis of North Korea RSS, U.S.-Korea Institute at SAIS, February 13, 2013,; Michael Laufer, “A. Q. Khan Nuclear Chronology,” Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, September 7, 2005,
100 Dafna Linzer, “IAEA Questions Libya’s Nuclear Program,” Washington Post, August 31, 2004,
101 Ishaan Tharoor, “A. G. Khan’s Revelations Did Pakistan’s Army Sell Nukes to North Korea?” Time, July 7, 2007,
102 Glenn Kesseler, “N. Korea, Syria May Be at Work on Nuclear Facility,” Washington Post, September 13, 2007,
103 Paul K. Kerr, Mary Beth D. Nikitin, and Steven A. Hildreth, “Iran-North Korea-Syria Ballistic Missile and Nuclear Cooperation,” Congressional Research Service, April 16, 2014,
104 Scott Snyder, “North Korea’s Illicit Arms Trade Unmasked,” Forbes, March 19, 2014,
105 Claudia Rosett, “North Korea’s Middle East Webs and Nuclear Wares,” Forbes, February 13, 2013.
106 Mark McDonald, “North Korea Sees Nuclear Error by Libya,” New York Times, March 24, 2011,
107 Donald Kirk, “North Korea Laments Gaddafi’s Nuke Folly,” Asia Times Online, March 29, 2011,
108 Gause, North Korean Civil-Military Trends.
109 Shen Dingli, “Lips and Teeth,” Foreign Policy, February 13, 2013,
110 Younghoon Ham, “Kim Jung-il samang: Buk-jung Gunsa Dong-maengkkaji Ganghwa . . . Urin Didil-ttang op-da?” [Death of Kim Jung Il: North Korea-China strengthen military alliances…we have no land to tread on] Herald Online Edition, December 20, 2011,; Shidong Yeo, “[Kim Jung-il] Jung, Daegyumo Tal-buk Daebi Gook-kyung Jidae Byeong-ryeok Jeungpa,”
[Kim Jong il] China, preparing large deployment of troops to border],, December 20, 2011,
111 Evan Osnos, “Lips and Teeth,” INovember 24, 2010,
112 Kenji Minemura, “Analysis: Chinese Military on Edge after Death of Kim Jong-il,” Asahi Shimbun, Asia and Japan Watch, January 23, 2012; Benny Avni, “North Korea Is Losing China. Does It Have a Friend in Russia?” Newsweek, May 13, 2014,; Beina Xu, “The China-North Korea Relationship,” Council on Foreign Relations, February 18, 2014,
113 Minemura, “Analysis.”

115 Rodger Baker, “China and North Korea: A Tangled Partnership,” Stratfor, April 16, 2013,
116 Ibid.
117 Bates Gill, China’s North Korea Policy, United States Institute of Peace, Report No. 283, Washington, DC, July 2011,
118 Koichiro Ishida, “North Korea Getting Antsy about Growing Ties between China, South Korea,” Asahi Shimbun, Asia & Japan Watch, July 26, 2014,
119 Hyung-kyu Choi and Sarah Kim, “China Shows Softer Stance on Korean Reunification in Report,” Korea JoongAng Daily, February 5, 2014,
120 Ibid.
121 Jung-a Song and Shawn Donnan, “China and South Korea Poised for Bilateral Trade Deal—,” Financial Times, July 3, 2014,
122 Mel Gurtov, “China-South Korea Relations: ‘Xi Jinping Visits Seoul: The Bigger Picture,’” Asia-Pacific Journal 12, no. 30 (2014), July 28, 2014,
123 E. J. Kim, “Trade between N. Korea, China Hits Record $6.45 Bln in 2013,” Yonhap News Agency, February 1, 2014,
124 Global Times, “Nuclear Tests Only Further Isolate Pyongyang,” People’s Daily Online, April 4, 2014,
125 “China Voices Support for Park’s Proposal on Unification with N. Korea,” Yonhap News Agency, April 3, 2014,
126 Tony Czuczka and Patrick Donahue, “Park Says Once-Divided Germany Is Model for Korea Reunification,”, March 27, 2014,
127 “Xi Jinping Meets with President Park Geun-hye of Republic of Korea,” Ministry of Foreign Affairs, People’s Republic of China, March 24, 2014,
128 “China Voices Support for Park’s Proposal on Unification with N. Korea.” Yonhap News Agency
129 Patrick Balbierz, “Remilitarizing Japan: An Enticing Prospect,” World Policy Institute, March 19, 2014,
130 Zachary Keck, “Japan Orders Military to Shoot Down North Korean Missiles,” The Diplomat, April 5, 2014,
131 Stuart Leavenworth, “China’s Xi Arrives in South Korea as Tensions Grow with North Korea, Japan,” McClatchy DC, July 3, 2014,
132 Hillary Clinton, “America’s Pacific Century,” Foreign Policy, October 11, 2011,
133 David Alexander and Andrea Shalal, “Budget Cuts to Slash U.S. Army to Smallest since before World War Two,” Reuters, February 24, 2014,
134 Matt Spetalnick and Mark Felsenthal, “Obama Reassures Allies, but Doubts over ‘Pivot’ to Asia Persist,” Reuters, April 29, 2014,
135 Barack Obama, “President Barack Obama’s State of the Union Address,” January 28, 2014,
136 Balbierz, “Remilitarizing Japan.”
137 Scott A. Snyder, “U.S. Policy toward North Korea,” Council on Foreign Relations, January 2013,
138 Victor D. Cha, The Impossible State: North Korea, Past and Future (New York: Ecco, 2012), 412.
139 Tong Kim, “U.S. on Korean Unification,” Korea Times, September 16, 2012,
140 Vladimir Putin, Annual Address to the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation, April 25, 2005,
141 “US, Russia Tensions Mount,” Brunei Times, September 7, 2008,
142 John Bolton, “Did Vladimir Putin Call the Breakup of the USSR ‘the Greatest Geopolitical Tragedy of the Twentieth Century?’”, PunditFact, March 3, 2014,
143 Ilya Khrennikov and Scott Rose, “Putin Looks East for Growth as Indebted Europe Loses Sheen,”, September 7, 2012,; Vladimir Putin, “An Asia-Pacific Growth Agenda,” Wall Street Journal, September 6, 2012,
144 Khrennikov and Rose, “Putin Looks East.”
145 Stephen Blank, “The Significance of Russia’s Frustration with North Korea,” The Diplomat, December 23, 2013,
146 Ibid.
147 Jeremy Page and Alastair Gale, “China Visit to Seoul a Snub to North Korea,” Wall Street Journal, June 27, 2014,
148 J. Battur, “A Glimpse into the History of the Mongolian-Korean Relations in the XX Century,” World Congress of Korean Studies, Academy of Korean Studies,, 1–16.; Adam Taylor, “North Korea May Be Sitting on $6 Trillion Worth of Rare Minerals,” Business Insider, August 8, 2012,; Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj, “Lecture by President Tsakhiagin Elbegdorj at Kim Il-sung University, North Korea,” October 30, 2013,
149 Jort Van Oosterhout, “Mongolia’s Approach toward Pyongyang: Offering Guidelines for Washington’s Failing North Korea Policy,” International Policy Digest, July 3, 2014,
150 Tania Branigan, “Mongolia’s Special Relationship with North Korea Pays Economic Dividends,” The Guardian, October 26, 2013,; Van Oosterhout, “Mongolia’s Approach toward Pyongyang.”
151 Michael Kohn, “Mongolia Seeks to Play Peacemaker as North Korea Declares “War,’”, March 30, 2013,
152 “International Leaders Convene at Global Peace Leadership Conference in Mongolia,” Global Peace Foundation, August 29, 2011,
153 Van Oosterhout, “Mongolia’s Approach toward Pyongyang.”
154 Elbegdorj, “Lecture.”
155 “Fresh Approaches to Korean Reunification Urged at Global Peace Convention 2011,” Global Peace Convention—Unity in Diversity: Building Social Cohesion for Sustainable Peace, Global Peace Foundation, December 1, 2011
156 “Global Peace Foundation’s Founder, Hyun Jin Moon Believes That the Korea Unification Issue Cannot Be Resolved through Politics and Diplomacy Alone,” Global Peace Foundation, April 16, 2013,
157 “Fresh Approaches to Korean Reunification Urged at Global Peace Convention 2011,” Global Peace Foundation.
158 Tania Branigan and Justin McCurry, “After Kim Jong-il’s Death, What Next for the People of North Korea?” The Guardian, December 20, 2011,
159 Seungheon Park and Jinwoo Kim, “Hangang Shimin Gongwonseo Yukwaehan Tongil chukje” [Joyful unification festival at Han River Park],, August 20, 2012,
160 Aidan Foster-Carter, “Jackpot or Crackpot? Park on Reunification,” Wall Street Journal, Korea Real Time, January 22, 2014,
161 Goohoon Kwon, “A United Korea? Reassessing North Korea Risks (Part I),” Goldman Sachs Global Economics, Commodities and Strategy Research, Global Economics Paper No. 188, September 26, 2009,
162 Christine Kim, “Korean unification may cost South 7 percent of GDP: ministry,” Reuters, Jan 1, 2013.
163 “N. Korea’s Per-capita GDP Grows 4.8 Pct in 2013: Report,” Yonhap News Agency, March 16, 2014,
164 “Trade, Economic Gaps between 2 Koreas Remain Wide: Data,” Yonhap News Agency, December 23, 2013,
165 Peter Bofinger, “The German Monetary Unification (GMU): Converting Marks to D-Marks,” Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, July–August 1990,
166 “How Reunification Cost Is Calculated,” Chosun Ilbo, August 17, 2010,
167 Kwon, “A United Korea?”
168 Gerhard Albert Ritter and Richard Deveson, The Price of German Unity: Reunification and the Crisis of the Welfare State (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011); “How Reunification Cost Is Calculated,” 74-84.
169 Kyung-soo Choi, “The Mining Industry of North Korea,” Nautilus Institute for Security and Sustainability, August 4, 2011,
170 Simon Ostrovsky, “Profit from Its People: North Korea’s Export Shame,” The Independent, October 14, 2011,
171 Kwon, “A United Korea?”
172 Ibid.
173 “N. Korea’s Mineral Resources Potentially Worth $9.7 tln,” Yonhap News Agency, August 26, 2012,
174 “Global Rare Earth Reserves,” Pacific Century, December 19, 2013,
175 Kwon, “A United Korea?”
176 Jae-soon Chang and Joint Press Corps, “Park Calls Korean Unification ‘Jackpot’ for Neighbors Too,” Yonhap News Agency, January 22, 2014,
177 “The July 4 South-North Joint Communiqué,” United Nations, July 4, 1972,
178 Daisy Sindelar, “Mongolian Democracy: From Post-Soviet Success to Post-Transition Struggle,” Radio Free Europe / Radio Liberty, December 9, 2009,
179 Anna Maria Busse, The Regeneration of Communist Successor Parties: Redeeming the Past in East Central Europe after 1989 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001) 121; John Ishiyama, Communist Successor Parties in Post-Communist Politics (Huntington, NY: Nova Science Publishers, 1999) 1-18.
180 “Park Seeks to Reboot Korean Unification Drive,” Japan Times, February 25, 2014,; Foster-Carter, “Jackpot or Crackpot?”


Chapter 4

181 Samguksagi [Chronicles of the Three Kingdoms] Sillabongi, No. 4, 24, thirty-seventh year of King Jinheung.
182 Ibid.
183 “Baegun Hwasang Chorok Buljo Jikji Simche Yojeol (Vol.II), the Second Volume of ‘Anthology of Great Buddhist Priests’ Zen Teachings’: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization.” Baegun hwasang chorok buljo jikji simche yojeol (vol.II), the second volume of “Anthology of Great Buddhist Priests’ Zen Teachings” | United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. UNESCO, 2001.
184 Gu Kim. Baek Beom-Ilji [Diary of Kim Gu], Bumwoosa, June 5, 2000, 301.
185 Gu Kim. Baek Beom-Ilji. Bumwoosa, June 5, 2000, 313–14.
186 Gu Kim. Baek Beom-Ilji. Bumwoosa, June 5, 2000, 314.
187 Academy of Korean Studies, Daedong Segye [World of great harmony], Encykorea: Encyclopedia of Korean Culture, August 2014,
188 Jeongin Park, “Pyunghwareul Seontaekhan Waejang Joseon-in Kim Chung-seoneuro Dasi Taeeonada” [The Japanese general who chose peace reborn as Korean Kim Chungseon]., August 17, 2005,
189 Dukgyu Lim, “On Gajok-i Haengbokhan Seol” [First day of the year in which the whole family rejoices], Chungcheong Today, February 4, 2013,
190 Donghoon Kim, “2013 Nyeon Chulsan-yul 1.18 Myung. Jeon-nyeonboda Harak” [2013 birthrate 1.18 per capita…drops from last year], Newstomato, February 12, 2014,
191 Hyo-sik Lee, “Korea to Become Most Aged Society in OECD in 2050,” The Korea Times, July 10, 2014,
192 Oh-Seok Hyun, “Towards Job-focused Economic Policy Making,” KDI-KLI-OECD Joint Conference, July 4, 2013,
193 Hyo-sik Lee, “Korea to Become Most Aged Society in OECD in 2050.”
194 Seunghun Lee, “Minjok Jungshin-ui Gwangbok” [Liberation of the national spirit], Seoul Economy Daily, August 11, 2004.
195 C. V. Gheorghiu, 25 Shireul Neom-eo Achim-ui Nararo [Beyond 25th Hour to the Land of the Morning Calm], (Seoul: Munhak Publishing, 1987), 19-20.


Chapter 5

196 Peter H. Lee, De Bary Wm. Theodore, and Yŏng-ho Ch’oe, Sources of Korean Tradition (New York: Columbia University Press, 1997), 337-339.
197 Yonhap News Agency, “Japanese Rule,” Yonhap News, May 6, 2013,
198 Ibid.
199 George Lakey, comp, “South Koreans Win Mass Campaign for Democracy, 1986–87,” Global Nonviolent Action Database, Swarthmore College, October 6, 2009,
200 Clyde Haberman, “Seoul Student’s Torture Death Changes Political Landscape,” New York Times, January 31, 1987,
201 Michael Breen, “Student Protesters Led Democracy Movement,” Korea Times, Issues, February 1, 2012,
202 Korea Democracy Foundation, “Prominent Democracy Activists: Lee Han-yeol (1966–1987),” Korea Democracy Foundation Newsletter, No. 10, May 3, 2006,
203 Lakey, “South Koreans Win Mass Campaign for Democracy.”
204 “June Issue Special Article: June 10 Democratic Uprising,” Korea Democracy Foundation, May 31, 2010,
205 Michael Chwe, “Funeral of Lee Han-yeol, 1987.7.9,” August 2011,
206 “June Issue Special Article.”
207 Yasmine Ryan, “The Tragic Life of a Street Vendor,” Al Jazeera English, January 20, 2011,
208 Robert Lee, “Jasmine Revolutions Have Hints of Korea’s Past,” Korea Herald, March 6, 2011,
209 Rania Abouzeid, “Bouazizi: The Man Who Set Himself and Tunisia on Fire,” Time, January 21, 2011,,9171,2044723,00.html.
210 “Satyagraha,” Metta Center for Nonviolence, August, 2014,
211 “Reproduction of Mahatma Gandhi’s ‘Harijan’ to Be Released,”, September 30, 2013,
212 Judith M. Brown, Cambridge South Asian Studies (London: Cambridge University Press, 1974), xiii.
213 Mohandas K. Gandhi, An Autobiography: The Story of My Experiments with Truth (Dover: Dover Publications, 2012), Kindle ed.
214 Ibid.
215 Mohandas K. Gandhi and Louis Fischer, The Essential Gandhi: An Anthology of His Writings on His Life, Work and Ideas (New York: Vintage, 2002), 278.
216 Roger Cohen, “Gandhi and Mandela,” New York Times, December 12, 2013,; Nelson Mandela, “The Sacred Warrior,”,
217 Janette Bennett, “Nelson Mandela Life Story: Not Just Father of the Nation,” The Independent, December 6, 2013,
218 “De Klerk Pays Tribute to Mandela’s ‘Unique Contribution,’” Mail & Guardian Online, December 6, 2013,
219 Eva Fairbanks, “How Nelson Mandela’s Legacy Hurts South Africa,” Newsweek, June 3, 2010,
220 Anthony Sampson, Mandela: The Authorized Biography (New York: Knopf, 1999) Kindle ed.
221 Nelson Mandela, Long Walk to Freedom: The Autobiography of Nelson Mandela (Boston: Little Brown, 1994), Kindle ed.
222 Nelson Mandela, Speech at Zionist Christian Church Easter Conference, Zionist Christian Church, Moria, April 20, 1992,
223 Nelson Mandela, “Nelson Mandela—Nobel Lecture,”
224 Nelson Mandela, “Inaugural Speech,” Inauguration as President of the Democratic Republic of South Africa, Union Buildings, Pretoria, March 10, 1994,
225 Jennifer Kim, “Tired of Giving In: Remembering Rosa Parks,” Ella Baker Center for Human Rights, October 22, 2010,
226 Martin Luther King Jr., “I Have a Dream,” Speech at March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, Washington, DC, August 28, 1963,
227 Ibid.
228 Bernice King, Speech at Global Peace Convention, Atlanta, Georgia, December 1, 2012,
229 Vladimir Tismaneanu, “Romania’s First Post-Communist Decade: From Iliescu to Iliescu,” Wilson Center, Global Europe Program, July 7, 2011,
230 “Voices of U.S. Diplomacy and the Berlin Wall,” U.S. Diplomacy Center,
231 “Gorbachev: Pope Was ‘Example to All of Us,’”, April 4, 2005,
232 Steven Gertz, “What Part Did Pope John Paul II Play in Opposing Communism in Eastern Europe?” Christianity Today, August 8, 2008,
233 Ibid.
234 Anne Applebaum, “How the Pope ‘Defeated Communism,” Washington Post, April 6, 2005,
235 Timothy Garten Ash, “The First World Leader,” Yale Global Online, April 4, 2005,
236 Mary Elizabeth King, “Václav Havel: A Life in Truth,” Waging Nonviolence, December 21, 2011,
237 “GDP per Capita (Current US$),” The World Bank Group,
238 Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj, Lecture by President Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj at Kim Il-sung University, North Korea, October 30, 2013,
239 Colin Delany, “How Social Media Accelerated Tunisia’s Revolution: An Inside View,” Huffington Post, February 10, 2011,
240 “Africa Internet Usage, Facebook and Population Statistics,” Miniwatts Marketing Group, August 7, 2014,
241 Rebecca Greenfield, “Measuring the Twitter Revolution Effect Is Pretty Hard,” The Wire, September 23, 2011,
242 “Burma,” Freedom House, 2012,; Andy Greenberg, “Myanmar Blackout,” Forbes, September 28, 2007,

244 “Wael Ghonim: Creating a ‘Revolution 2.0’ in Egypt,” NPR, February 9, 2012,
245 “North Korea Bans Mobile Phones,” The Sydney Morning Herald, June 3, 2004,
246 “North Korea: Two Million Have Mobile Phones,” BBC News, August 5, 2013,; Martyn Williams, “Orascom Has $422 Million in Cash in North Korea,” North Korea Tech, December 16, 2013,
247 Michael Weiss, “Vaclav Havel: Rock ’n’ Roll and the Power of the Powerless,” World Affairs Journal, December 21, 2011,
248 “Country Comparison: Internet Users,” The World Factbook, Central Intelligence Agency,
249 Yonho Kim, Cell Phones in North Korea: Has North Korea Entered the Telecommunications Revolution? US-Korea Institute at SAIS, March 6, 2014,
250 Choe Sang-hun, “North Koreans Use Cellphones to Bare Secrets,” New York Times, March 28, 2010,
251 Melanie Kirkpatrick, Escape from North Korea: The Untold Story of Asia’s Underground Railroad (New York: Encounter, 2012), Kindle ed.
252 Ibid., 287.
253 Nat Kretchun and Jane Kim, “A Quiet Opening: North Koreans in a Changing Media Environment,” Intermedia, May 2012, 1–88,
254 InterMedia, International Broadcasting to North Korea: An Evaluation of Three South Korean Independent Radio Stations, September 2008.
255 Brian Gleason, “Poor Professors, State Corruption, and the Entrepreneurial Spirit within the North Korean Economy,” SinoNK, August 23, 2012,
256 Kirkpatrick, Escape from North Korea.


Chapter 6

257 Tong-il Munje Yeon-gu [Study of unification issues], 2014 Biannual Edition 26, No. 1(Issue 61), 1-33.
258 “Tong-il-eul Shilcheonhaneun Saramdeul” [Action for Korea United], Action for Korea United,
259 Thomas Davies, “NGOs: A Long and Turbulent History,” Global Journal, January 24, 2013,
260 Tocqueville, Alexis de, Democracy in America, Vol. I & II (Optimized for Kindle). Trans. Henry Reeves, (Packers Technologies, 2002), Kindle edition.
261 Ibid.
262 Kathryn McConnell, “Civil Society’s Role in New Democracies,” IIP Digital, September 14, 2011,
263 “The Salvation Army—History of the Salvation Army,” Salvation Army,
264 John P. Burgess, The East German Church and the End of Communism (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), 61-66.
265 Elizabeth Valkenier, “The Catholic Church in Communist Poland, 1945–1955,” Review of Politics 18, no. 3 (1956): 305–26,
266 Olga F. Chtiguel, “Without Theatre, the Czechoslovak Revolution Could Not Have Been Won,” TDR (1988–) 34, no. 3 (1990): 88–96.
267 William H. Luers, “Czechoslovakia: Road to Revolution,” Foreign Affairs 69, no. 2 (1990): 77–98.
268 “Daehan Bulgyo Jogyejong” [Jogye order of Korean Buddhism], Jogye Order of Korean Buddhism, February 20, 2012,; Sang-hun Choe, “South Korea Will Allow a Buddhist Group to Visit the North,” New York Times, September 2, 2011,
269 “The Global Religious Landscape,” Pew Research Centers Religion in Public Life Project, December 18, 2012,
270 Don E. Eberly, The Rise of Global Civil Society: Building Communities and Nations from the Bottom Up (New York: Encounter, 2008).
271 Ibid.
272 Davies, “NGOs: A Long and Turbulent History,” Global Journal, January 24, 2013,
273 “Fact Sheet: Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) in the United States,” U.S. Department of State, January 12, 2012,
274 Nilanjana Bhowmick, “Accountability of India’s Nonprofits under Scrutiny.” Time, December 14, 2010,,8599,2036307,00.html.
275 “Russia: Moscow Court Consolidates Witch Hunt of NGOs,” Amnesty International, June 27, 2014,
276 Debra Javeline and Sarah Lindemann-Komarova, “A Balanced Assessment of Russian Civil Society—JIA SIPA,” Journal of International Affairs 63, no. 2 (April 2010): 171–88,
277 “A Short History of Grameen Bank,” Grameen Bank,
278 “Credit Lending Models,” Grameen Bank, July 15, 2014,
279 Eberly, Rise of Global Civil Society, 281.
280 “Hankuk Jawon Bong-sa Hyeopuihoe-ibnida” [Introduction to the Korean Volunteering Council], Introduction to the Volunteering Korea,
281 “All-Lights Village,” All-Lights Village, All-Lights, March 1, 2014,
282 “All Lights Village,” Global Peace Foundation,
283 “GPF Korea Receives Government Commendation for Charitable Work,” Global Peace Foundation, March 6, 2013,
284 “Global Poomashi,” Global Peace Youth Corps,
285 “ICC Names Kenya Violence Suspects,” BBC News, December 15, 2010,
286 Chando, “A Better Day for Kenya Has Come,” Global Peace Foundation, August 31, 2008,
287 Kenya Institute of Public Policy Research and Policy Analysis, “Character & Creativity Initiative in Transforming Secondary School Culture in Kenya,” 2013, and creativity.pdf.
288 “Character and Creativity Initiative (CCI),” Global Peace Foundation, Education Division,; Lonah Kibet, “Moulding Character Reduces Vices, Report Shows,” Standard Digital News, August 14, 2013,
289 “Character and Creativity Initiative.”
290 Kibet, “Moulding Character Reduces Vices.”
291 Ibid.
292 “Global Peace Foundation Receives Commendation from the United Nations for Kenya Initiatives,” Global Peace Foundation, October 28, 2013,
293 “Character and Creativity Initiative.”
294 “Korean Construction Firm Wins Paraguay’s Route 8 Hwy Tender,” Business News Americas, March 18, 2014,
295 “‘Inicio Simbólico’ de Obras en Ruta VIII” [Symbolic start to work on Route 8], ABC Color, June 18, 2014,; “Gobierno Se Impone y Firma Primer Contrato con Empresa Internacional” [Government gets involved and signs first contract with international company], Ultima Hora, April 24, 2014,
296 Ana Antúnez, “Corea Pretende Transmitir Su Forma de Desarrollo Económico” [Korea seeks to convey their way of economic development], La Nacion, June 16, 2014,
297 “GPF Symposium Presents Korea Development Model as an Example for Paraguay,” Global Peace Foundation, June 19, 2014,; Freedom in the World “Paraguay,” Freedom House, 2013; “Impeachment of Paraguayan President Threatens Fledgling Democracy,” Freedom House, June 26, 2012,
298 “Impeachment of Paraguayan President Threatens Fledgling Democracy.”
299 Simon Romero, “An Indigenous Language with Unique Staying Power,” New York Times, March 11, 2012,
300 “Corruption by Country/Territory, Paraguay” Transparency International,
301 Ibid.
302 Katherine Isbester and Viviana Patroni, The Paradox of Democracy in Latin America: Ten Country Studies of Division and Resilience (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2011), 22.
303 Roque G. Vera, “Dirigentes Radicales de Casado Perdieron las Internas Coloradas” [Radical leaders of Casado lose in Colorado internal elections], ABC Color, August 1, 2010,
304 “Expropian Tierras de Empresa Coreana” [Expropriated lands of Korean company], ABC Color, September 27, 2005,; “Francisco Dick Se Alza Contra Fallo de la Corte Suprema de Justicia” [Francisco Dick rises up against failures of the Supreme Court], ABC Color, June 10, 2007,
305 World Bank, Land Policies for Growth and Poverty Reduction: A World Bank Policy Research Report, 2003,
306 “La Educación y el Desempleo, los Grandes Retos Según Carlos Slim” [Education and unemployment, the great challenges according to Carlos Slim], Ultima Hora, July 17, 2014,; United Nations Development Programme, “Paraguay—Crisis Poverty and Social Impact Analysis (PSIA),” March 1, 2010,
307 Wil Waluchow, “Constitutionalism,” Stanford University, September 11, 2012,
308 Howard J. Wiarda, The Soul of Latin America: The Cultural and Political Tradition (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2001), 3–8; Francis Fukuyama, “Two Centuries of South American Reflections on the Development Gap between the United States and Latin America,” in Falling Behind: Explaining the Development Gap between Latin America and the United States [Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008), 12.
309 Freedom House, Countries at the Crossroads 2011 – Paraguay, November 11, 2011,
310 Andrew Nickson, Paraguay: Governance Assistance—Project Assessment, United Nations Development Programme, 2011,
311 Ľuboš Pástor and Pietro Veronesi, “Political Uncertainty and Risk Premia,” Journal of Financial Economics 110, no. 3 (2013): 520–45,
312 “Varios expresidentes debaten hoy sobre gobernanza, ética y desarrollo” [Former presidents deliberate today on governance, ethics and development], ABC Color, June 11, 2013,; Explorarán oportunidad de negocios con Corea” [Exploring business opportunities with Korea], ABC Color, June 16, 2014,
313 Peter Lambert, “Countries at the Crossroads 2011, Paraguay,” Freedom House,
314 “Forum on ‘Character Formation of Paraguayan Youth’ Packed with Enthusiasm.” Global Peace Foundation. July 10, 2013.
315 “Americas Summit Hosts Former Latin American Presidents,” Global Peace Foundation, November 30, 2012,
316 “Impact of Corruption on Development and How States Can Better Tackle Corruption under the Spotlight at UN Anti-Corruption Conference in Morocco,” United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, October 23-28, 2011,
317 “Corruption by Country/Territory, Paraguay,” Transparency International.
318 Roque G. Vera, “Alto Paraguay Quiere Desprenderse del Pesado Lastre de la Corrupción” [Alto Paraguay wants to get rid of the burden of past corruption], ABC Color, January 6, 2014,
319 “Cuestionadas Personas Se Postulan en Alto Paraguay” [Questionable people are identified in Alto Paraguay], ABC Color, November 27, 2012,;
320 Roque González Vera. “Alto Paraguay es pobre y miserable gracias a su dirigencia política” [Alto Paraguay is poor and miserable thanks to its political leadership], ABC Color, July 21, 2012,; “Responsables de la penosa realidad” [Responsible for a painful reality]. ABC Color, January 19, 2014,
321 Vera, “Alto Paraguay Quiere Desprenderse del Pesado Lastre de la Corrupción” [Alto Paraguay wants to get rid of the burden of past corruption].
322 “Puerto Casado Intenta Recuperar el Tiempo Luego de Años de Violencia” [Puerto Casado tries to recover after years of violence], ABC Color, June 26, 2011,
323 “Cultivating Alto Paraguay,”, April 2012,
324 “Reunión IDPPS” [IDPPS meeting], Municipalidad de Puerto Casado,
325 Roque G. Vera, “En Puerto Casado Asume el Primer Intendente Alejado de los Pro Tierra” [In Puerto Casado, first Mayor installed, remove Pro Tierra], ABC Color, December 24, 2010,; Vera, “El Desafío de Trasparentar la Comuna” [The challenge of a transparent community]. ABC Color, January 20, 2011,
326 “Puerto Casado Recibe Distinción Inédita para Su Municipalidad” [Puerto Casado receives unprecedented distinction for their municipality], ABC Color, December 22, 2011,; “Una Mujer Se Postula para Administrar Alto Paraguay” [A woman is running to govern Alto Paraguay], ABC Color, June 24, 2012,
327 “Global Peace Festival Reunió a 2.500 Personas En Casado” [Global Peace Festival gathers 2,500 in Casado], ABC Color, September 28, 2011,
328 “José Chamorro Perdió en Internas de Alto Paraguay” [José Chamorro Loses in internal elections of Alto Paraguay], ABC Color, December 11, 2012,
329 “Juran Gobernadores en el Banco Central” [Swearing in of Governors at Central Bank], ABC Color, August 15, 2013,
330 Carlos Almirón, “Gobernadora Presenta Informe de Gestión” [Governor presents management report], ABC Color, March 8, 2014,
331 “Ante emergencia, amplían vuelos del Setam en Alto Paraguay y Concepción” [Before emergency, SETAM flights expand to Alto Paraguay and Concepción], ABC Color. January 24, 2014,; Carlos Almirón, “Asisten a comunidades aisladas en Alto Paraguay” [Assisting isolated communities in Alto Paraguay], ABC Color, April 14, 2014,
332 “Acuerdo para Desarrollar Alto Paraguay” [Agreement to develop Alto Paraguay], ABC Color, April 15, 2014,
333 Vera, “Alto Paraguay Quiere Desprenderse del Pesado Lastre de la Corrupción” [Alto Paraguay wants to get rid of the burden of past corruption], January 6, 2014, ABC Color,
334 “Bernadino Cano Radil,” Portal Guarani, September 2014,
335 Belén Marty, “Paraguay the Diamond in the Rough for Economic Growth amid Weakening Latin America,” PanAm Post, May 5, 2014,; Simon Romero, “Boom Times in Paraguay Leave Many Behind,” New York Times, April 24, 2013,
336 “Paraguay,” Heritage Foundation, 2014 Index of Economic Freedom,; Andrea Jaramillo, “Paraguay Rating Raised by S&P as Investment Plan Fuels Growth,”, June 12, 2014,
337 “Hijo del Reverendo Moon Ofrece Ayuda para Que el País Sea Modelo en la Región” [Son of Rev. Moon offers help to make nation a model for the region], ABC Color, June 13, 2013,
338 Nestor Loizaga, “Paraguay,” Latin Lawyer, May 13, 2014,
339 “Simposio Empresarial por la Alianza con Corea del Sur” [Business symposium for an alliance with South Korea], ABC Color, June 12, 2014,
340 Ministry of Investment and Commerce of the Republic of Paraguay, Investment Opportunities in Paraguay, October 2011.
341 “North Korea,” Economy: Population, GDP, Inflation, Business, Trade, FDI, Corruption, Heritage Foundation,
342 Song Jung-a, “South Koreans Drawn to Unification-Linked Funds,” Financial Times, June 1, 2014,
343 Ibid.
344 Edward P. Reed, “From Charity to Partnership: South Korean NGO Engagement with North Korea,” in Sung Chull Kim and David C. Kang, Engagement with North Korea: A Viable Alternative (Albany: SUNY Press, 2009), 199.
345 Mi Ae Taylor and Mark E. Manyin, Non-Governmental Organizations’ Activities in North Korea, Congressional Research Service, March 25, 2011,
346 Ibid.
347 Reed, Edward P. “From Charity to Partnership: South Korean NGO Engagement with North Korea,” The Asia Foundation Resources,
348 Ibid.
349 Hyuk-jin Park, “Haksaengdeul Jigeob·Yeollyeongdae dayang Tong-il Junbineun Mirae Junbihaneun Geot” [Students from various backgrounds applied. Unification preparation is preparation for the future], Weekly Chosun, April 7, 2014,
350 Ibid.
351 Roy P. Clark, “Who Is the Fifth Estate and What Is Its Role in Journalism’s Future?” Poynter Institute, March 4, 2011,; Jennifer Hlad, “4th Estate, 5th Estate Values Differ,” ASNE NewsNow 2010 Ideas Summit, April 2010,


Chapter 7

352 UNESCO, World Data on Education: Republic of Korea, 6th ed. October 2006,
353 Young-ha Kim, “South Korea’s Tragic Failure” New York Times, May 6, 2014,; Esther Felden, “A Troubled Nation: South Korea after the Sewol,” Deutsche Welle, May 15, 2014,
354 “South Korea Ferry: Students Reveal Horror of Sewol Disaster,” The Week, July 28, 2014,
355 Jiayang Fan, “South Korea Looks for Answers after a Tragedy,” New Yorker, April 30, 2014,
356 Scott Snyder and See-won Byun, “China-Korea Relations: China’s Red Line on the Korean Peninsula,” Comparative Connections: A Triannual E-Journal on East Asian Bilateral Relations (2014).
357 Ibid.
358 Samuel P. Huntington, The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order (New York,: Simon and Schuster, 1996), Kindle ed.
359 Gallup, “War on Terrorism,”; “What Would America Fight For?” The Economist, May 3, 2014,
360 “What Would America Fight For?”
361 “Why Putin Wants Ukraine,” Wall Street Journal, February 21, 2014,
362 Carlo Muñoz, “Locklear: Asia-Pacific Is Becoming ‘Most Militarized Region in the World,’” USNI News, January 23, 2014,
363 “REPORTS.” Debt to the Penny (Daily History Search Application). U.S. Department of the Treasury, Bureau of the Fiscal Service,
364 Michael Barone, “Uncomfortable Truths about Family Breakdown,” National Review Online, December 27, 2013,
365 Jamie Dettmer, “Al Qaeda to ISIS: Get Off My Lawn—The Theological Debate behind the Caliphate,” The Daily Beast, July 9, 2014,
366 Amira El-Fekki, “Young Egyptian Joins IS Forces, Experts Say Youth Are ‘Dazzled’ by Islamic State,” Cairo Post, August 6, 2014,
367 Tom Rogan, “A Terrorist Storm Is Heading for the West, and the Brutal ISIS Is behind It,” Telegraph Blogs, May 21, 2014,
368 G. Parthasarathy, “Iraq War a Manifestation of Larger Shia-Sunni Rivalry,” New Indian Express, July 6, 2014,
369 Paul K. Kerr, Mary Beth D. Nikitin, and Steven A. Hildreth, Iran-North Korea-Syria Ballistic Missile and Nuclear Cooperation, Congressional Research Service Report No. R43480, April 16, 2014,
370 “Al-Kibar,” Nuclear Threat Initiative, December 6, 2013,; Makovsky, David. “The Silent Strike.” The New Yorker. 17 Sept. 2012.
371 Jay Rothman and Marie L. Olson, “From Interests to Identities: Toward a New Emphasis in Interactive Conflict Resolution,” Journal of Peace Research 38, no. 3 (2001): 289–306.
372 Hannah Roberts, “One in 50 Priests Is a Pedophile: Pope Francis Says Child Abuse Is ‘Leprosy’ Infecting the Catholic Church,” Mail Online, July 15, 2014,
373 Sun Myung Moon, As A Peace-Loving Global Citizen (Washington, DC: The Washington Times Foundation, 2009), p. 246-247
374 Sun Myung Moon, “The Path to World Peace in View of God’s Will,” Assembly 2001, New York, October 20, 2001,
375 Ibid.
376 Kim, Baek Beom-Ilji [Diary of Kim Gu], pp. 313-14.
377 “GDP per Capita (Current US$),” The World Bank Group,
378 Cat Lockman, “Interfaith and Young Leaders Retreat in Kaduna State, Nigeria Calls for Cooperation,” Global Peace Foundation, June 16, 2014,
379 Hillary Clinton, “America’s Pacific Century,” Foreign Policy, October 11, 2011,
380 Victor Hugo, “Conclusion,” in Histoire D’un Crime, vol. 8 (Paris: Édition Ollendorff-Imprimerie Nationale, 1907), 169–87.


Chapter 8

381 Hyun Jin Preston Moon, “Strategic Framework for Resolving the Korean Issue,” Keynote Address, International Forum on One Korea, Washington D.C., December 12, 2018.
382 Ibid.
383 Hyun Jin Preston Moon, “The State of the Korean Issue and the Future of the Two Koreas,” Keynote Address, Forum on One Korea, Seoul, Korea, August 14, 2019.
384 Moon, “Strategic Framework.”
385 Hyun Jin Preston Moon, “What the U.S. Is Getting Wrong on North Korea: Opinion.” Newsweek, February 25, 2019.
386 Ji, Ho Young, “Global Peace Foundation Chairman Hyun Jin Moon’s ‘Korean Dream,’” Shin Dong A Magazine, April 2019.
387 Moon, “Strategic Framework.”
388 Hyun Jin Preston Moon, “How the World Should View The Reunification of Korea,” Keynote Address, Global Peace Convention, Seoul, Korea, February 28, 2019.
389 Moon, “State of the Korean Issue.”